Loggerhead Shrike

The Loggerhead shrike, belonging to genus Lanius, is a passerine bird. It is related to Northern shrike. It is often referred to as Butcherbird because of its carnivorous tendencies. As per Partners in Flight, their present worldwide breeding population is about 5.8 million.

Loggerhead Shrike

Loggerhead Shrike

Scientific classification of the Loggerhead Shrike

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Aves

Order: Passeriformes

Family: Laniidae

Genus: Lanius

Species: L. ludovicianus

 

Scientific Name for Loggerhead Shrike

The scientific name for Loggerhead shrike is Lanius ludovicianus.

 

Loggerhead Shrike Subspecies

It has seven recognized subspecies. They are –

  • Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides
  • Lanius ludovicianus migrans
  • Lanius ludovicianus ludovicianus
  • Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi
  • Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi
  • Lanius ludovicianus grinnelli
  • Lanius ludovicianus mexicanus

 

Loggerhead Shrike Physical description

Adult Loggerhead shrikes are around 23 centimeters in length (from bill to tail), and they weigh between 45 to 58 grams.

Physical description of the Loggerhead Shrike

Physical description of the Loggerhead Shrike

Their wingspan is around 33 centimeters. Their head and back have bluish-gray plumage. Their underparts are white, and rumps are either white or pale gray. They possess black wings along with a unique white colored patch on its primaries. They have a black thin strip that starts from its bill and goes across its eyes and ends a little far from it. They have a short black colored bill that is hooked in front. They possess a black tail with white edges. It has a brown iris. Their tarsus and feet are black. Young bird possess pale gray plumage.

 

Loggerhead Shrike habitat

They primarily inhabit open countryside with short trees, well-spaced shrubs, and short vegetation. They are commonly seen in pastures, desert scrublands, savannas, old orchards, agricultural fields, golf courses, gardens, riparian areas, and prairies.

The habitat of the Loggerhead Shrike

The habitat of the Loggerhead Shrike

Loggerhead Shrike geographical range

They are native to North America. They are found in central Canada, southern states of Canada and the greater mid-west of US. However, during their migration during summer/spring, they often go as far as California.

The geographical range of Loggerhead Shrike

The geographical range of Loggerhead Shrike

Loggerhead Shrike Behavior and Adaptation

They keep up their territories by displays and songs. Intruders are most challenged with intensified prey-stalking displays. They look out for potential preys from tree branches and then diving onto it. At times, they also hunt from the ground by surprising their prey from a hideout. To kill bigger preys, they impale them on throned or sharp objects. Observers have noted this species to have killed animals that are as big as its own size. They transport big preys on its feet and little animals in its bill. Before the start of the breeding season, neighboring individuals often come together and display or call for several minutes. This helps them to peacefully set up breeding territories, and also help new pairs form their own territories near already existing territories. Courtship displays include males singing to females, perform flight displays and also engage in a ritual dance. This bird is primarily monogamous. However, females occasionally raise a second brood with another male in a single season. Newly hatched juveniles are known to perform misdirected, theatrical versions of hunting behaviors of adults. They fly about with sticks, leaves on its bills; and engage in mock aerial chases with no targets.

 

Loggerhead Shrike Reproduction

Both male and female select the nesting site. They make their nest (usually around 2.5 – 4 feet from the ground) in shrubs or trees with dense branches. The nest, which looks like a bulky cup, is made with weeds, twigs, and grass among others. It is lined with soft materials like feathers, animal hairs, or rootlets. Female lay a clutch of 4 – 6 light gray or dull white spotted eggs, in mid-April or late June. Incubation is done by the female only, and this process lasts for 13 to 17 days. During this time, the male provides food to the female. After hatching, both parents feed the nestlings. The juveniles stay dependent on their parents for food for one to four weeks after hatching.

Reproduction of Loggerhead Shrike

Reproduction of Loggerhead Shrike

Loggerhead Shrike Diet

They feed on invertebrates during warm seasons. During nesting season, their primary foods include rodents, grasshoppers and beetles. During winter, their diet include small songbirds, shrews, mice, voles, squirrels and frogs among others.

Diet of Loggerhead Shrike

Diet of Loggerhead Shrike

Loggerhead Shrike lifespan

Their estimated lifespan is 7 or 8 years in the wild. The longest known lifespan of an individual was believed to be 11 years and 9 months. It was a male in California; and it was released by ornithologists, in 2010.

 

Loggerhead Shrike Video

Vocalization of the Loggerhead Shrike

They produce varied jarring and harsh calls. Their notes include guttural warbles, shrill trills, and squeaky whistles. Males are a lot more vocal than females. During breeding season, males mostly produce trills in different pitch and rhythm. Their alarm call sounds like “schgra-a-a.” Males’ territorial call is a harsh shriek; while females’ call is a bit softer and lower pitched. Female may produce ‘mak’ notes when asking for food from the male during breeding season. Nestlings make ‘tsp’ or ‘cheek’ sound following hatching.

 

Threats of the Loggerhead Shrike

Since the 1960s, their population has gone down in North America. Human disturbance, climate change, pesticide contamination and loss of habitat are the primary causes for their fall in numbers.

 

Loggerhead Shrike Conservation Status

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has kept Loggerhead shrike in the ‘Near Threatened’ category.

 

Loggerhead Shrike Interesting Facts

  • Its first description was given by French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760.
  • This bird kills vertebrates with its tomium’s pointy projections, popularly known as ‘tomial teeth.’
  • They are quite skillful in discarding Lubber grasshopper’s poisonous thorax toxic before consuming it.
  • This species often hunt during cold mornings when insects stay immobilized due to extreme cold weather.
  • It gets its common name ‘Loggerhead’ because of its large head in comparison to the size of its body.
  • According to the North American Breeding Bird Survey, their population has gone down by around 3% each year from 1966 to 2015.

 
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